CHM 105:  GENERAL, ORGANIC AND BIOCHEMISTRY

 

Objective A:  Scientific Measurement

 

Page 14, Significant Figures, and Page 15, Scientific Notation.  Sections 2.2  and 2.3 (Pages 15-19.)  Section 2.5 (Pages 25-28.)  Pay particular attention to Appendix B: Significant Figures (on Pages 618 - 620) and Appendix B:  Exponents and Scientific Notation (Pages 621 - 624.)  Also Appendix C: Converting from One Unit to Another (on pages 625-629.)

 

Study the Exercises at the end of each Appendix listed above.

 

End of Chapter Exercises (Pages 28 and 29): #2, 4, 6, 8, 14, 16, 24, 34, 36.

 

Objective B:  Atomic Structure and Objective C:  Use of the Periodic Table.

 

Section 3.1 (Pages 34-36) and Section 3.2 (Page 37.)  Section 3.3 (Pages 38-43); Section 3.4 (Pages 43-46.)  Section 3.5 (especially Pages 5054.)  Section 3.6 (Pages 54 and 55 and especially Table 3.8 on Pages 54 and Examples 3.21 and 3.22 on Page 55.)  Chapter Summary on Page 56.

 

End of Chapter Exercises (Pages 56-59):  #18, 20, 22, 24, 28, 42, 44, 46, 52, 56, 58, 60, 62.

 

Objective D:  Chemical Bonding.

 

Section 4.1  (Pages 62, 63) and Example 4.1.  Section 4.2 (Pages 63-66); Example 4.4 (Page 66) and Example 4.5 (on Page 67.)  Section 4.3, Metallic Bonding, on Page 70; Section 4.4, Covalent Compounds, (Pages 72-76.)  Section 4.5, Shapes; of :Molecules, (Pages 77-81 and 83.)  Refer to Section 6.1, Physical States of Matter, on pages 116-119, particularly Hydrogen Bonding on Page 118.

 

End of Chapter Exercises (Pages 84-87):  18, 24, 32, 34, 36, 38, 42, 52, 54, 58, 64.

 

Objective E;  Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas.

 

Naming Binary Compounds (Page 67, including Example 4.6 and Table 4.2 on Page 67.)

Example 4.7 on Page 68.  Polyatomic Ions (Page 69, including Examples 4.8 and 4.9 on Page 69.)  Table 4.3 on Page 68 and Table 4.4 on Page 69.  See Naming Covalent Compounds on Page 76.  Study Table 4.6 and Example 4.12 on Page 76.

 

End of Chapter Exercises (Pages 84-87):  #22, 24, 226, 28, 48.

 

Objective F:  Chemical Equations.

 

Section 5.1 (on Pages 90-93)  As you go through these pages, pay particular attention to the discussion of chemical changes in the last paragraph on Page 90.  Then go to Writing Balanced Equations on Pages 91-93.  Study Examples 5.2 and 5.3 on Page 93.  Section 5.

Section 5.2 (Pages 93-95.)

 

End of Chapter Exercises, Pages 111-13:  #4, 6, 8.

 

Objective G:  The Mole Concept.

 

As you go through the recommended section, work through all of the problems and

solutions that are included.  Study Section 5.4:  Moles on Pages 98-102.

 

End of Chapter Exercises on Page 112.  Work #28, 30, 32, 34, 36.

 

Objective G:  Stoichiometric Calculations.

 

Study Section 5.5: Stoichiometry on Pages 102-108 and work through all of the problems given in this section. 

 

End of Chapter Exercises on Page 112.  Work #44, 46, 48, 50.

 

Objective H:  Ionization of Acids, Bases, Salts.

 

Study Section 9.1: Acids and Bases: Definitions, Properties, and Names on Pages 186-189; Section 9.2:  Strength of Acids and Bases on Pages 189-193; Section 9.3: pH on Pages 194-197.  Look also at  Acidosis and Alkalosis on Page 207.

 

End of Chapter Exercises, Pages 209-210, #4, 6, 14, 18, 30, 40, 43.

 

Objective I: The Gas Laws.

 

Section 6.2: Changes in Physical State, Pages 119-121.  Section 6.3: Physical Properties of Gases on Pages 126-134, particularly “Three Important Gas Laws” on Page 128 and “Universal Gas Law” on Page 132.

 

End of Chapter Exercises, Pages 132-137: # 52, 57, 58, 60, 70, 72, 74.

 

Objective J:  Solutions and Concentrations of Solutions.

 

Section 7.3: Colloids and Suspensions on Pages 146 and 147; Section 7.4: Concentrations of Solutions on Pages 147-152.  Take particular note of ‘Molarity” on Page 149-150;             “Percent Concentration” on Pages 150-152 and “Parts per Million” on Pages 152 and 153. 

 

End of Chapter Exercises, Pages 158-160:  #40, 46, 50.

 

Objective K: Organic Chemistry.

 

Section 11.1, Carbon, on Pages 240-241; Section 11.2, Shapes; of Organic Molecules,  on Pages 241; Section 11.3: Representing Carbon Chains and Rings, Pages 245-247; Section 11.5: Types of Organic Compounds, Pages 250-251.

 

Section 12.1, Alkanes, on Pages 258-260; Section 12.2, Structural Isomers, Pages 260-262;  Section 12.3: Condensed Structural Formulas, Pages 263-264, and Section 12.4: Naming Alkanes, Pages 264-268.  End of Chapter Exercises, Pages 277-279:  #2, 4, 14, 18, 30.

 

Objective L:  Additional Organic Compounds

 

Section 13.1, Alkenes, Pages 282-284; Section 113.2: Alkynes, Page 285; Section 13.3:                 Geometric Isomers, Pages 283-286.  Section 13.5: Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Pages 295-298.

Section 14.1, Alcohols, Pages 308-310; Section 14.6, Ethers: Page 320-321; Section 15.1,

Aldehydes: Pages 328-331; Section 15.2: Ketones, Pagers 331-332; Section 16.1, Carboxylic

Acids: Pages 350-352; Section 16.4, Chemical Reactions of Carboxylic Acids, Pages 356-361.

 

Objective M:  Basics of Biochemistry.

 

Concentrate on the notes given out in class.  You may also refer to the following:

Section 19.1: Introduction to Carbohydrates  on Page 408.  Section 19.2: Monosaccharides on Pages 409 to 412.  Section 19.3: Optical Isomers.  Section 19.5: Disaccharides and Polysaccharides Pages 421 to 423.  Chapter Summary on Pages 424 and 425.  Section 20.1: Fats and Oils on Pages 430 to 432.   Section 20.2: Chemical Reactions of Triglycerides and Fatty Acids on Pages 433 to 435.   Section 20.4: Steroids on Pages 437 and 438. Section 20.7: Cell Membranes on Page433 and 434. Chapter Summary on Page 445.  Section 21.1: Amino Acids on Pages 450-454.   Section 21.2: Essential Amino Acids on Pages 454-455.  Chapter Summary on Page 469.

 

Objective N:  Special Topics in Biochemistry and Physiological Chemistry.

 

Study the notes that will be given in class.  Specific page references will be given during lecture.

 

 LABORATORY SCHEDULE

 CHM 105

 

WEEK 1               Problem Solving:               Problem Solving - Metric Conversions

 

WEEK 2               Experiment:                      Laboratory Techniques and Safety Precautions;

                                                                   Solutions and Suspensions

 

WEEK 3               Experiment:                       Measurements; Density              

 

WEEK 4               Experiment:                       Collecting Gases Over Water:

                                                                    Preparation and Properties of Oxygen

 

WEEK 5               Experiment:                       Preparation and Properties of Hydrogen

 

WEEK 6               Models                              Structure & Shape of Covalent Molecules              

 

WEEK 7               Experiment:                        Activity Series; Single Replacement Reactions

 

WEEK 8               Experiment:                        Double Replacement Reactions  

 

WEEK 9               Exercise                             Balancing Chemical Reactions

 

WEEK 10               Experiment                        % Composition of KClO3              

 

WEEK 11               Experiment                         Verification of Charles’ Law

 

WEEK 12               Experiment                         Acid-Base Titrations                             

 

WEEK 13               Models                               Organic Compounds: Hydrocarbons, Alcohols,

                                                                       Aldehydes, Ketones, Acids

 

WEEK 14:Experiment                                        Synthesis of Alcohols, Esters, Aldehydes and Ketones

 

 

ADDITIONAL LAB EXERCISES

 

The following calculator-based laboratory experiments may be included in the CHM 105 course:

 

1) Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions

2) Boyle’s Law: Pressure-Volume Relationship in Gases

3) Properties of Solutions: Electrolytes and Non-Electrolytes

4) Energy Content of Foods

5) Synthesis of Aspirin

6) Household Acids and Bases

7) Acid Dissociation Constant, Ka

8) Buffers

 

NOTE:  Substitutions and adjustments in the above schedule may be made at the discretion of the

instructor.

 

Specific Objectives:

 

The specific objectives for CHM 105 are listed below.

 

A competency level of 75% or better is expected for these objectives.

 

During this course, on written tests and laboratory practical examinations, the student will demonstrate knowledge and skills in the following areas:

 

A.   Scientific Measurement.   The student will:

 

1.    Distinguish between mass and weight by explaining, in writing, the difference between these

       terms and by using the appropriate term to fit a given laboratory situation.

 

2.    Demonstrate, in the laboratory, two different methods of finding the volume of a given object: (a) by direct measurement and (b) by the displacement of water.

 

3.    Calculate the density, mass, or volume of a given substance when given the values for any two of these three dimensions.  To do this the student will use the density formula.

 

4.    Distinguish between density and specific gravity by explaining, in writing, the difference between these and by using the appropriate term to fit a given laboratory situation.  The student will also demonstrate a further understanding of these terms by calculating one of these when given the other.

 

5.    Demonstrate an understanding of the Celsius, Fahrenheit and Kelvin temperature scales by selecting the appropriate scale for a given situation. The student will also convert a reading on a given scale to either of the other two temperature scales.

 

6.    Relate calories and specific heat to the specific heat formula. To do this, the student will correctly solve calculations involving these terms.

 

7.    Distinguish between the metric units by correctly selecting the appropriate metric unit used to

        measure length, volume or mass.

 

8.     Demonstrate an understanding of the metric system by correctly making metric-metric, metric-

        English and English-metric conversions. To convert between the English and metric systems,

        the student will select and apply appropriate conversion factors.

 

Tools and Constraints Involved:

 

In all appropriate situations involving the objectives listed above, the student will (a) use the unit cancellation method of problem solving, (b) correctly use values given in scientific notation, and ( c ) express answers in scientific notation and to the correct number to significant figures.  Students will be allowed to use calculators in making all calculations.

 

B. Atomic Structure.   The student will:

 

1.    Distinguish between matter and energy by explaining, in writing, the difference between these

        terms.

 

2.     Classify matter by defining, in writing, the following terms: mixture, pure substance.  To do

        this, the student will also select and use the appropriate term for a given situation.

 

3.     Select and use the appropriate symbol to represent any chemical element.

 

4.     Use the Periodic Table of Elements to identify the Atomic Number and the Relative Atomic

        Mass for any given element.

 

5.     Use the Atomic Number and the Mass Number for any given element to predict (a) the number

        of protons in the nucleus, (b) the number of neutrons in the nucleus and ( c ) the number of

        electrons found in one atom of any given element.

 

6.     Use diagrams to show the electron distribution in a given atom by principle energy level, sub

        level and orbital.

 

7.     Use the Periodic Table to predict the number of principal energy levels and the number of

        outermost electrons for a given element.

 

8.     Relate electron distribution to the ionic charge of an element.  To do this, the student will define

        these terms in writing and will also use the Periodic Table to write the ionic charge of any

        given A-group element.

 

9.     Relate valence-electron structure to chemical activity by analyzing an electron distribution

        diagram and predicting whether the given atom will gain or lose electrons or remain inert.  The

        student will also predict the number of electrons, if any, that will be gained or lost.

 

10.    Distinguish between an atom and ion by explaining, in writing, the differences between these.

        These differences will include the valence level structure and the electrical charge.

 

11.    Distinguish between cations and anions by explaining, in writing, the differences between

        these. These differences will include the differences in symbols and charge notations.

 

Tools and Constraints Involved:

 

To perform any of the above tasks, the student will be expected to use, when appropriate, a standard Periodic Table and formal conventions for diagramming atomic structures.

 

C. Use  of the Periodic Table.  The student will use the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements to:

 

1.    Locate any given element on the table and use the location to predict the physical and chemical

       properties of that element.

 

2.    Write the expected oxidation number for elements in a given compound.

 

3.    Distinguish between metals, nonmetals, metalloids, transition elements, and inert elements by

       writing the classification of a given element based on that element's Periodic Table.

 

4.    Distinguish between Groups and Periods and between A-Groups and B-Groups on the Periodic Table.  To do this, the student will correctly predict and use properties based on the given element's period and group location on the Periodic Table.

 

5.    Relate an element’s electron-dot structure to its location in a particular group on the Periodic Table.  The student will draw the electron-dot structure for a given element.

 

Tools and Constraints Involved:

 

To perform the above tasks, the student will refer to a standard Periodic Table of the elements. However the student will be expected to memorize the symbols for at least 40 common elements and the ionic charges  for the common reactive elements.

 

D. Chemical Bonding.  In order to demonstrate an understanding of bond formation the student will:

 

1.    Write the type of bond that will form between two given elements.

 

2.    Explain the electron rearrangement that will occur when a bond forms between elements.  The

       student will also draw a Lewis diagram to illustrate this re-arrangement.  These tasks will involve

       all types of bonding, including ionic, covalent and coordinate covalent bonding.

 

3.    Use electronegativity values and a % Ionic Character Chart to predict and illustrate the

       formation of ionic and covalent bonds.

 

4.    Draw Lewis Diagrams of molecules containing atoms which do not obey the Octet Rule. Write

       an explanation of why some atoms do not obey the Octet Rule.

 

5.    Use the concept of separation and electronegativity difference to explain bond polarity.  When

       given the reacting elements, the student will classify the resulting bond as either polar or non

       polar by determining electronegativity differences.  The student will also use Lewis diagrams to

       represent the molecule and will use the VSEPR theory to predict the shape of the molecule and

       resulting properties.

 

6.    Use the concept of charge separation to explain molecular polarity.  The student will describe

       the chemical and physical properties that are related to molecular polarity and will give

       examples and illustrations of molecular polarity.

 

7.    Use the concept of intermolecular forces to explain and illustrate hydrogen bonding.

 

8.    Use the concept of hydrogen bonding and van der Waal's forces to explain, predict and

       illustrate intermolecular forces.

 

9.    Use molecular models to illustrate molecular geometry and explain how the presence of a lone

       pair of electrons affects the bond angles.

 

10.  Use Lewis Diagrams to explain and illustrate diatomic elements.  The student will write and use

      correct formulas for diatomic elements in subsequent work involving formulas and/or equations.

 

11.    Distinguish, in writing, between pure and impure substances and between mixtures and

        compounds.

 

Tools and Constraints Involved:

 

In all work involving chemical bonding, the student will use the Periodic Table as a reference.

 

E.  Writing Formulas and Naming Compounds.  The student will:

 

1.    Write correct IUPAC names for given chemical formulas

 

2.    When given the IUPAC name, write the correct chemical formula for that compound.

 

3.    Write 2 acceptable chemical names for compounds containing divalent elements. For such

       compounds, the student will also convert either of the acceptable chemical names to the

       correct chemical formula for that compound.

 

Tools and Constraints Involved:

 

In naming compounds and writing formulas, the student will use a standard Periodic Table as a reference.  However the student will be expected to memorize the names, formulas and charges  for the common  polyatomic ions.

 

F.  Chemical Equations.  The student will:

 

1.    Translate given word equations into correct formula equations.

 

2.    Correctly use the terms reactant, product, and yields, as well as appropriate chemical

       notations, to write or describe a chemical reaction.

 

3.    Correctly identify a given equation as to the type of chemical reaction that it represents. This

        includes single replacement, double replacement, combination, decomposition, and neutralization.

 

4.    Correctly balance a given chemical equation.

 

5.    When given the reactants, correctly complete (by writing all reaction products) and balance the

       equation.  The student will use an Activity Series to predict the reaction products for a single

       replacement reaction.

 

6.    When given an oxidation-reduction reaction, use the concept of change in oxidation state to

       identify the substance oxidized, the substance reduced, the oxidation agent and the reducing

       agent in that reactions.

 

7.    Use the concept of change in oxidation state to correctly balance a given redox reaction.

 

Tools and Constraints Involved:

 

The student will use, as reference tools, a Periodic Table and an Activity Series.

 

G.    The Mole Concept and Stoichiometric Calculations.  The student will demonstrate a clear

        understanding of the mole concept and the use of the mole in chemical calculations.  To do this, the

        student will:

 

1.    Use the Periodic Table to calculate the gram atomic weight or the gram formula weight for any

       given element or compound.

 

2.    Use unit cancellation and the mole concept to convert between gram atomic mass (or gram

       formula mass),  grams, moles, number of atoms (or molecules) and liters of a gas at STP.

 

3.    Write values for standard temperature and standard pressure.

 

4.    Use the mole concept and unit cancellation to solve mass-mass, mass-volume, volume-volume

       or mole-mole relationships within correctly balanced equations.  In doing this, the student will

       correctly set up the problem and will solve for the unknown quantity.

 

5.    Use mole relationships to calculate the Percent Yield in a given chemical reaction.

 

6.    In laboratory situations, the student will calculate the Percent Yield for a particular reaction that

       he or she has conducted.

 

7.    Identify the limiting reagent and correctly solve for the unknown quantity in a given chemical

       reaction.

 

8.    When given the percent composition and the molecular weight of an unknown compound, use

       the mole concept to calculate the empirical formula and the molecular formula for that

       compound.  

 

Tools and Constraints Involved:

 

The student will use a Scientific calculator for mathematical solutions and will express answers in scientific notation and to the correct number of significant figures.  The student will use the Periodic Table as a reference and will have access to appropriate laboratory equipment and chemicals.  In all appropriate calculations, the unit cancellation method will be used.

 

H. Ionization:  Acids, Bases and Salts.  The student will demonstrate a clear understanding of ionization,

    dissociation and the relation of these to acids, bases and salts to polarity.  To do this, the student will

 

1.     Distinguish between solutes, solvents and solutions by explaining, in writing, the differences between these.  Describe, in writing, the types of solutions.

 

2.     Demonstrate an understanding of the terms ionization and dissociation by explaining these concepts in writing and by giving examples of chemical equations that illustrate ionization.

 

3.    Use the concepts of ionization and dissociation to fully explain the formation of acids, bases,

       and salts.

 

4.     When given a specific chemical compound, identify that compound as either an acid, a base, or a salt.

 

5.     Distinguish between acids and bases and list the physical and the chemical properties of each.

 

6.    Use both the Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis Theories to fully distinguish between acids and bases.

 

7.    Identify the term pH and use a pH scale to distinguish between weak and strong acids and

       bases.

 

8.    Use the concepts of ionization and dissociation to explain the difference between weak

       electrolytes, strong electrolytes and non-electrolytes.

 

9.     Identify and write correctly balanced equations for neutralization reactions.

 

10.   Write the net ionic equation for neutralization reaction.

 

11.   When given the formula for an acid or base, write the IUPAC name for the compound given.

 

12.   When given the name of an acid or base, write the correct formula for that compound.  In writing this formula, the student will use correct notation to indicate that the compound is in solution.

 

13.    Identify buffers and explain the action of buffers.  Identify buffer systems in the body.

 

14.    Use LeChatlier’s Principle to identify the changes caused in a system in equilibrium by a change in

(1)  the concentration of one of the constituents of the system; (2) the temperature; (3) the pressure, or (4) the presence of a catalyst.

     

15.    Recognize the use of Ka in determining the strength of a weak acid, and  relate pKa to the H+  

concentration (and therefore the pH) of a weak acid.  State the effect of the pH of body tissue to the effectiveness of an anesthetic such as  Novocain.

 

16.    Use the HCO3-  buffer system to explain why specific body conditions can lead to a condition of either acidosis or alkalosis.

 

Tools and Constraints Involved:

 

The student will use, as reference tools, a Periodic Table, an Activity Series, and a pH scale.  The student will also have access to appropriate laboratory supplies and equipment.

 

I.   The Gas Laws.  The student will:

 

1.    Demonstrate an understanding of the concepts of mass, volume, and pressure.  To do this, the

       student will write the effect produced on any one of these when either of the other two are

       increased or decreased.

 

2.     Explain Boyle's Law, Charles' Law and the Combined Gas Law.  The student will use formulas to explain why these laws work.

 

3.     Solve problems involving Boyle's Law, Charles' Law and the Combined Gas Law.

 

4.     Solve problems involving Dalton's Law.

 

5.    Use Dalton's Law to convert from "wet" to "dry" gases in gas law problems.

 

6.    Use the Ideal Gas Law formula to explain the Ideal Gas Law.

 

7.    Use the Ideal Gas Law formula to solve problems.

 

8.    Use Graham's Law to rank given gases in order of their diffusion rates.

 

9.    Solve Molar volume problems.

 

Tools and Constraints Involved:

 

The student will use, as reference tools, a Periodic Table and a chart giving the vapor pressure of water at specific temperatures.  The student will be expected to memorize appropriate gas law formulas but will use a calculator to solve these problems.

 

J.  Solutions and Concentration of Solutions.  The student will:

 

1.    Explain Molarity and solve Molarity problem.

 

2.    Define, in writing:  saturated, unsaturated, and supersaturated.  Relate each of these to the

       solution process.

 

3.    Solve dilution problems.

 

4.    Solve percent concentration problems.

 

5.    Solve problems involving mole fractions.

 

Tools and Constraints Involved:

 

To perform the above tasks, the student will be expected to use, when appropriate, a standard Periodic Table as a reference.

 

K. Principles of Organic Chemistry:  Hydrocarbons.  The student will:

 

1.    Explain, in writing, the difference between organic and inorganic compounds, and classify

       given compounds as either organic or inorganic.

 

2.    Illustrate, in a drawing, the tetrahedral nature of methane .

 

3.    Identify the type of bond that forms between carbon atoms and also the type of bond that forms

       between carbon and hydrogen.

 

4.    Explain, in writing, and illustrate with examples, the meaning of the term, homologous series.

 

5.    Use structural formulas to illustrate the concept of isomer

 

6.    Write the names and structural formulas for the first 10 normal alkanes.

 

7.    Recognize, name and write structural formulas for the common alkyl groups.

 

8.    Distinguish, by using structural formulas as illustrations, between alkanes, alkenes, alkynes,

       and alkadienes.

 

9.    Recognize and illustrate cyclohexane.

 

10.   Describe the structure of benzene and illustrate with both a drawing and a structural formula.

 

11.   Recognize, name, and draw structural formulas for simple alcohols, acids, esters,

        ethers, aldehydes and ketones, and amines.

 

Tools and Constraints Involved

 

To perform the tasks listed under Objective K, the student will use a standard Periodic Table.  As appropriate to an understanding of these concepts, the student may also be provided with molecular models.

 

L.  Additional Organic Compounds.  The student will:

 

1.    List the major classifications of organic compounds and write the functional group beside each

       one.

 

2.    Recognize, write IUPAC names for, structural formulas for and basic reactions of the alcohols,

       alkyl halides, carboxylic acids, esters, aldehydes, ketones and ethers.

 

3.    Discuss and illustrate, with structural formula equations, appropriate methods of preparation of

       any of the above types of compounds.

 

4.    Discuss and illustrate, with structural formula equations, appropriate reactions of any of the

       above types of compounds.

 

5.    State Markownikov's Rule, explain when this rule applies and illustrate the application of this rule

       with a structural formula equation.

 

Tools and Constraints Involved:

 

To perform the tasks listed above, the student will use a standard Periodic Table.  Molecular models and diagrams will be provided as appropriate.

 

M.      Basics of Biochemistry.  The student will:

 

1.    Classify carbohydrates as monosaccharides, disaccharides, trisaccharides or

       polysaccharides.

 

2.    Use the concepts of hydrolysis and dehydration to illustrate catabolism and anabolism.

 

3.    Use structural formulas in the open chain and Haworth ring to illustrate glucose, fructose,

       galactose, and ribose.

 

4.    Explain and illustrate the structures for maltose, lactose, and sucrose, emphasizing the method

       by which the monosaccharides are linked together to form these compounds.

 

5.    Discuss the general metabolism of carbohydrates in the human body.

 

6.    Use structural formulas to illustrate the compound glycerol.

 

7.    Explain the relationship between fats and esters.

 

8.    Describe the general structure of fats and oils.

 

9.    Write names and formulas for the fatty acids that most commonly occur in fats and oils.

 

10.  Select, from a list, the fatty acids essential to the human diet.

 

         11.   Demonstrate, through the use of structural formulas, how a fat is formed from fatty acids and

                 a triglyceride.

 

12.    Discuss, in general, cholesterol and steroids.

 

13.    Discuss the general metabolism of fats in the human body.

 

14.    Distinguish between three lipids:  fats, phospholipids and glycolipids by illustrating portions of the structural formulas of these.

 

15.   Explain the "hardening" of vegetable oils, and explain the difference between fats and oils.

 

16.   Illustrate, through a drawing, what is meant by a alpha-amino acid and explain the relationship of these to proteins.

 

17.   Explain and illustrate the meaning of di-, tri-, and polypeptide that are formed by combining amino acids.

 

18.   Describe the functions and metabolic products of proteins and amino acids.

 

Tools and Constraints Involved

 

To perform the tasks listed under Objective M, the student will use a standard Periodic Table.  Appropriate charts and lists will also be provided.

 

N. Special Topics in Biochemistry and Physiological Chemistry.

 

The student will:

 

1.    Describe and illustrate aerobic and anaerobic respiration, and write the differences between

       these.

 

2.     Discuss in detail and illustrate the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (Krebbs Cycle or Citric Acid Cycle.)

 

3.    Discuss the importance of coenzymes to energy production.

 

4.    Describe the electron transport chain.

 

5.    Explain the chemical difference between DNA and RNA.

 

6.    Describe the metabolism of proteins and fats.

 

7.    Explain and illustrate energy yields in the metabolic processes.

 

8.    Use Lechatlier's Principle to explain respiratory acidosis and alkalosis.

 

Tools and Constraints Involved:

 

To perform the tasks listed above, the student will use a standard Periodic Table and appropriate metabolic diagrams and illustrations.