Biology 211 Course Objectives
The student should be able to demonstrate knowledge of the following Anatomy and Physiology topic areas:
The student will: compare the nervous system and the endocrine system as to their controlling mechanisms; contrast endocrine and exocrine glands; compare circulating hormones to local hormones; identify the location of the glands; list the secretions of each of the major glands and discuss their effects on the body; explain hormone target cell specificity; discuss the mechanisms of hormone actions; and summarize the controls of hormone release.
The student will: list the major components of the blood; relate the functions of the blood; discuss the functions of the components; explain the process of hemopoiesis; discuss hemostasis; describe the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of blood coagulation; and list the factors that limit clot growth.
The student will: describe the location and size of the heart; list the membranes and layers of the heart wall; identify the chambers and the valves; explain the circulation of blood through the heart; recognize the properties of cardiac muscle; explain the conduction system and electrocardiography; recognize the origin of the heart sounds; and describe the factors that control the heart rate and cardiac output.
The student will: describe the location and structure of major arteries, veins and capillaries; explain the physiology of blood flow; discuss the factors that regulate blood pressure; explain the differences in blood lipids; and summarize the process of atherosclerotic plaque formation.
The student will: explain the function of lymph; describe the formation and movement of lymph; discuss the composition of lymph; list the major lymphatic vessels and their structure; describe the major lymph glands and organs; discuss the factors in nonspecific resistance to disease; discuss the inflammatory response; explain immunity as it relates to B-lymphocytes humoral immunity and T-lymphocytes cellular immunity; discuss active immunity, passive immunity, tissue rejection, hypersensitivities, allergies, autoimmune diseases and aids.
The student will: describe the structure the respiratory system; discuss the mechanics of pulmonary ventilation; explain the factors in external respiration; recognize the components of the total lung volume; describe the transport of gasses; discuss the factors that control breathing; and explain chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
The student will: discuss the chemical structure and the role of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins and minerals as they relate to life processes; explain the role of the liver in metabolism; and discuss energy balance as it relates to calorie intake, energy expenditure, metabolic rate, and heat production.
The student will: describe the structures of the urinary system; discuss the functions of the urinary system; describe the processes in the formation of urine; summarize the regulatory controls in urine formation; and list the major components in urine.
The student will: discuss the major fluid compartments; describe the factors that influence the movement of fluids; explain fluid input and output and their controls; discuss the functions and regulation of electrolytes; and acid base balance and buffers.
The student will: describe the structure of the male and female reproductive systems; discuss the process of spermatogenesis and oogenesis; summarize the regulation of the systems; and compare the developmental aspects of the two systems.
The student will: describe the process of capacitation and fertilization; summarize the stages of embryonic development; discuss the development of embryonic membranes and germ layers identify the physiological changes in the pregnant woman; discuss parturition and lactation; explain genotype, phenotype, assortment of chromosomes, crossover, recombination, dominate and recessive inheritance frequencies, sex linked inheritance; and recognize the influence of environmental factors on gene expression.