Lecture 15 The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves

  1. Describe the development of the spinal cord.
  2. Describe how the spinal cord is protected.
  3. List and describe the meninges in order from outside in.
  4. Identify and give the function of the denticulate ligaments.
  5. Define and describe:

·       Epidural space

·       Subdural space

·       Subarachnoid space

  1. Identify and give the significance of:

·       Cervical enlargement

·       Lumbar enlargement

  1. Identify and describe:

·       Conus medullaris

·       Filum terminale

·       Caude equina

  1. List and describe the roots that give rise to the spinal nerves.
  2. Define and give the location and function of the dorsal root ganglion.
  3. Define and give the uses of a spinal (lumbar) puncture.
  4. Describe the internal anatomy of the spinal cord.
  5. List the functions of the spinal cord.
  6. Define tract.
  7. List the kinds of tracts.
  8. Distinguish between ascending and descending tracts.
  9. List the major sensory and motor tracts and give the function of each.
  10. Define reflex.
  11. List the kinds of reflexes.
  12. Describe reflex arc.
  13. Differentiate between a monosynaptic and polysynaptic reflex arc.
  14. Describe examples of common reflexes.
  15. List the characteristics of spinal nerves.
  16. Describe the connective tissue coverings of nerve.
  17. List the branches of the spinal nerves.
  18. Define plexus.
  19. List and describe the spinal plexuses.
  20. Describe the intercostals nerves.
  21. Define dermatomes.
  22. Describe the following disorders:

·       Shingles

·       Poliomyelitis

·       Spinal cord injury

·       Spinal bifida

·       Myelomeningocele


Lecture 16 The Brain

  1. List the major parts of the brain
  2. List the parts of the brain stem.
  3. List the parts of the diencephalons
  4. Describe the blood flow requirements of the brain.
  5. Describe how the brain gets its blood supply.
  6. Define the blood-brain barrier.
  7. List the protective coverings of the brain.
  8. List the modifications of the dura mater and give their locations.
  9. Describe the meningeal spaces.
  10. Describe cerebrospinal fluid.
  11. Describe the formation of cerebrospinal fluid.
  12. List the parts of the ventricular system of the brain.
  13. Describe how these parts are connected.
  14. Describe the reabsorption of CSF.
  15. Define hydrocephalus.
  16. Differentiate between internal and external hydrocephalus.
  17. List the parts of the medulla oblongata.
  18. Identify:

·       Pyramids

·       Olive

  1. Define decussation of the pyramids.
  2. List and describe the nuclei of the medulla oblongata.
  3. Describe the location of the pons.
  4. Describe the function of the pons.
  5. List the pontine nuclei and describe their functions.
  6. Describe the location of the midbrain.
  7. Identify the cerebral peduncles and explain their functions.
  8. Identify the tectum.
  9. Identify the corpora quadrigemina and explain their functions.
  10. List the midbrain nuclei and give the functions of each.
  11. Describe the reticular formation.
  12. Describe the function of the reticular activating system.
  13. Give the functions of:

·       Substantia nigra

·       Red nucleus

  1. Describe the cerebellum.
  2. Identify:

·       Transverse fissure

·       Tentorium cerebelli

  1. Describe the structure of the cerebellum.
  2. Identify:

·       Cerebellar cortex

·       Arbor vitae

  1. Give the functions of the cerebellar nuclei.
  2. Describe the cerebellar peduncles.
  3. List the types of cerebellar peduncles and give the function of each.
  4. Describe the cerebellar tracts.
  5. List the functions of the cerebellum.
  6. Describe the diencephalons.
  7. List the parts of the diencephalon.
  8. Describe the thalamus.
  9. Give the general functions of the thalamus.
  10. Identify:

·       Internal capsule.

·       Internal medullary lamina

  1. List the thalamic nuclei and give the functions of each.
  2. Describe the hypothalamus.
  3. List the hypothalamic regions and the kind of nuclei found in each.
  4. Describe the functions of the mammillary bodies.
  5. Identify the infundibulum.
  6. Give the functions of:

·       Supraoptic nucleus

·       Paraventricular nucleus

·       Suprachiasmatic nucleus

·       Preoptic nuclei

  1. Describe the hypothalamohypophyseal tract.
  2. List the functions of the hypothalamus.
  3. Describe the epithalamus.
  4. Give the function of the:

·       Pineal body

·       Habenular nuclei

  1. Describe the subthalamus.
  2. Define circumventricular organs and give their functions.
  3. Describe the structure of the cerebrum.
  4. Identify:

·       Gyri

·       Fissures

·       Sulci

  1. Identify the corpus callosum and give its function.
  2. List the lobes of the cerebrum.
  3. Identify the precentral and postcentral gyri.
  4. Identify and give the function of:

·       Association tracts

·       Commissural tracts

·       Projection tracts

  1. List the principal commissural tracts.
  2. Identify the basal ganglia.
  3. List and describe the nuclei in the basal ganglia.
  4. List the functions of the basal ganglia.
  5. Describe the limbic system and list its components.
  6. Give the functions of the limbic system.
  7. Describe the following brain injuries:

·       Concussion

·       Contusion

·       Laceration

  1. List the functional areas of the cerebrum and give their locations and specific functions.
  2. Describe hemispheric lateralization.
  3. Identify and describe the types of brain waves seen on an electroencephalogram (EEG).
  4. Describe the development of the brain.
  5. Describe the effects of aging on the nervous system.
  6. Describe the following disorders:

1.     Cerebrovascular accidents

2.     Transient ischemic attacks

3.     Alzheimer disease


Lecture 17 Cranial Nerves

  1. List the cranial nerves; give the name, number and functions of each.
  2. List the branches of cranial nerves II, V, and VII.
  3. List the ganglia of the cranial nerves.


Lecture 18  Sensory, Motor, and Integrative Systems.

  1. Define:

·       Sensation

·       Perception

·       Stimulus

·       Modality

  1. List the general senses.
  2. List the special senses.
  3. Describe the events of sensation.
  4. List and describe the types of receptors.
  5. Describe the locations of receptors.
  6. Define adaptation.
  7. List and define the tactile sensations.
  8. List the rapid adapting touch receptors.
  9. List the slowly adapting touch receptors.
  10. List the pressure receptors.
  11. List the vibration receptors.
  12. List the thermal receptors.
  13. Describe nociceptors.
  14. Describe the sensation of pain.
  15. Define referred pain.
  16. List the proprioceptors.
  17. List the kinesthesic receptors.
  18. Identify:

·       Primary somatosensory area

·       Primary motor area

·       Premotor area

  1. Describe the somatic sensory pathways.
  2. List and give the function of the posterior column pathways.
  3. List and describe and give the specific function of the somatic sensory tracts.
  4. Differentiate between the direct and indirect motor pathways.
  5. List and describe the:

·       Direct motor pathways

·       Indirect motor pathways

  1. Describe the modulation of movement by the:

·       Basal ganglia

·       Cerebellum

  1. Describe the integrative functions of the cerebrum.
  2. Differentiate between MREM sleep and REM sleep.
  3. List and describe spinal cord injuries.
  4. Describe Parkinson disease.
  5. Describe:

·       Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

·       Huntington’s chorea


Lecture 19 The Special Senses

1.     Identify:

2.     Olfactory epithelium

3.     Bipolar neurons

4.     Describe the chemical theory of olfaction.

5.     Define and describe adaptation.

6.     Describe the olfactory pathway.

7.     Identify:

8.     Olfactory nerves

9.     Olfactory bulbs

10.  Olfactory tract

11.  Mitral cells

12.  Granule cells

13.  List the three kinds of papillae.

14.  Identify:

15.  Gustatory cells

16.  Gustatory hair

17.  Taste pore

18.  List the primary taste sensations.

19.  List the possible additional taste sensations.

20.  Describe gustatory adaptation.

21.  List the three cranial nerves in the gustatory pathway.

22.  Describe the structure of the external ear.

23.  Describe the structure of the middle ear.

24.  Describe the structure of the inner ear.

25.  Describe the spiral organ of corti.

26.  Define:

27.  Frequency

28.  Amplitute

29.  Describe the physiology of hearing.

30.  Describe auditory processing.

31.  List the two kinds of equilibrium.

32.  Describe otitis media.

33.  Differentiate between conductive and nerve deafness.


Lecture 20 The Eye

·       List and describe the accessory structures of the eye.

·       Identify and differentiate between palprebral and bulbar conjunctiva.

·       Describe the lacrimal apparatus.

·       List the extrinsic eye muscles and give their locations.

·       Describe the structure of the eyeball.

·       List and describe the three tunics of the eye.

·       Give the functions of the circular and radial muscle fibers of the iris.

·       List and describe the layers of the retina.

·       Identify the rods and cones.

·       Give the functions of rods and cones.

·       Identify the central fovea and the macula lutea.

·       Describe the optic disc.

·       Describe the lens of the eye.

·       Describe the interior of the eye.

·       Differentiate between anterior and posterior cavities.

·       Differentiate between anterior and posterior chambers.

·       Identify the scleral venous sinus.

·       Define and identify the location of the aqueous humor and the vitreous humor.

·       Describe retinal image formation.

·       Describe the stimulation of photoreceptors.

·       Describe the visual pathway.

·       Describe the visual disorders.


Lecture 21 The Autonomic Nervous System

1.     Give the characteristics of the autonomic nervous system.

2.     List the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

3.     Differentiate between preganglionic and postganglionic neurons and fibers.

4.     Describe the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.

5.     Identify:

·       White and gray rami communicantes

·       Sympathetic trunk

·       Prevertebral or collateral ganglia

·       Splanchnic nerves

6.     Describe the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.

7.     List the terminal ganglia.

8.     List the cranial nerves associated with the parasympathetic division.

9.     List the neurotransmitters used in the autonomic nervous system.

List and describe the neurotransmitter receptor